Indonesia’s precious tropical forests are being laid waste by an illegal logging epidemic of a higher magnitude than anywhere else in the world. The current deforestation rate stands at a shocking 35,000 square kilometres a year, and analysts estimate that up to 90 per cent of all timber felled in Indonesia is obtained illegally. The problem of illegal logging in Indonesia is being driven by international demand for cheap tropical timber, principally the markets of China, Japan, the US and the European Union. Only cooperation between Indonesia and the countries receiving its illegal timber will diminish the scale of illegal logging. Recently there have been encouraging signs that the timber consuming countries are beginning to acknowledge their responsibility to assist Indonesia. The EU has launched an action plan to control imports of illegal timber, the US has launched a presidential initiative, Japan and Indonesia have jointly launched the Asia Forest Partnership and China has signed a Memorandum of Understanding. Yet despite such policy advances the situation on the ground is deteriorating and urgent steps are needed to stem the flow of illegal timber from Indonesia. The efforts currently being made by countries such as those above are also being hampered by a lack of legislation in consumer countries banning the import of illegally sourced wood.